Beneficial effects of artichoke on liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and plasma lipids in rats fed by lipogenic diet

Esfandiar Heidarian, Effat Jafari-Dehkordi, Ali Seidkhani-Nahal

Abstract


Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is full of natural antioxidants and has a lipid-lowering effect.  The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of artichoke on the liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, plasma lipid levels, plasma malondialdehyde, and plasma antioxidant in rats fed by lipogenic diet. Male rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 10% artichoke (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) plus 10% artichoke (group III) and only lipogenic diet (group IV). On day 60 of the experiment, liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity, liver triglyceride, plasma lipids, plasma malondialdehyde, and plasma antioxidant levels were measured. Phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity, liver triglyceride, the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased due to artichoke treatment in groups II and III compared to groups I and IV, respectively. Significant reduction in plasma malondialdehyde and significant elevation in plasma antioxidant power observed in groups II and III compared to groups I and IV, respectively. The results clearly indicated that artichoke can be useful for the reduction of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity and liver triglyceride. Also, artichoke has beneficial effects in the controlling of hyperlipidemia, abnormalities in lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic regimes.

 


References


McKenney JM. Pharmacotherapy of dyslipidemia. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2001; 15(5): 413-422.

Laker MF. Cardiovascular disease prevention: the new Joint British Societies' guidelines. Ann Clin Biochem. 2006; 43(Pt 5): 335-339.

Gould AL, Davies GM, Alemao E, Yin DD, Cook JR. Cholesterol reduction yields clinical benefits: meta-analysis including recent trials. Clin Ther. 2007; 29(5): 778-794.

Andersen C, Rayalam S, Della-Fera MA, Baile CA. Phytochemicals and adipogenesis. Biofactors. 2010; 36(6): 415-422.

Mulvihill EE, Huff MW. Antiatherogenic properties of flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health. Can J Cardiol. 2010; Suppl A(26): 17A-21A.

Küskü-Kiraz Z, Mehmetçik G, Dogru-Abbasoglu S, Uysal M. Artichoke leaf extract reduces oxidative stress and lipoprotein dyshomeostasis in rats fed on high cholesterol diet. Phytother Res. 2010; 24(4): 565-570.

Joy JF, Haber SL. Clinical uses of artichoke leaf extract. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007; 64(18): 1904, 1906-1909.

Shimoda H, Ninomiya K, Nishida N, Yoshino T, Morikawa T, Matsuda H, Yoshikawa M. Anti-hyperlipidemic sesquiterpenes and new sesquiterpene glycosides from the leaves of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.): structure requirement and mode of action. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2003; 13(2): 223-228.

Zapolska-Downar D, Zapolski-Downar A, Naruszewicz M, Siennicka A, Krasnodębska B, Kołdziej B. Protective properties of artichoke (Cynara scolymus) against oxidative stress induced in cultured endothelial cells and monocytes. Life Sci. 2002; 71(24): 2897-2808.

Juzyszyn Z, Czerny B, Pawlik A, Droździk M. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on ROS generation in HUVEC cells. Phytother Res. 2008; 22(9): 1159-1161.

Wang M, Simon JE, Aviles IF, He K, Zheng QY, Tadmor Y. Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51(3): 601-608.

Carman GM, Han GS. Roles of phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes in lipid metabolism. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006; 31(12): 694-699.

Fleming IN, Yeaman SJ. Purification and characterization of N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP2) from rat liver. Biochem J. 1995; 308 ( Pt 3): 983-989.

Petersen KF, Shulman GI. Etiology of insulin resistance. Am J Med. 2006; 119 (5 Suppl 1): S10-16.

Reue K, Phan J. Metabolic consequences of lipodystrophy in mouse models. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006; 9(4): 436-441.

Heidarian E, Haghighi B. Enzymological characteristic of plasma membrane phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP2) from rat liver. Iran J Sci Technol A. 2008; 32,117-122.

Brindley DN. Lipid phosphate phosphatases and related proteins: signaling functions in development, cell division, and cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2004; 92(5): 900-912.

Sciorra VA, Morris AJ. Roles for lipid phosphate phosphatases in regulation of cellular signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002; 1582(1-3): 45-51.

Gebhardt R. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes by artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extracts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998; 286(3): 1122-1128.

Yanardag R, Peksel A, Yesilyaprak B, Doger MM, Arisan-Atac I. Effects of a combination of niacin and chromium(III)-chloride on the skin and lungs of hyperlipemic rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005; 103(3): 249-260.

Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972; 18(6): 499-502.

Norman, S.R. Preparation of lipid extracts. In: John MI. (Ed.), Methods of Enzymology. Academic Press, London; 1969. Vol. 14.

Haghighi B, Honarjou S. The effects of hydrazine on the phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity in rat liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1987; 36(7): 1163-1165.

Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976; 72: 248-254.

Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem. 1979; 95(2): 351-358.

Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996; 239(1): 70-76.

Frishman WH. Biologic markers as predictors of cardiovascular disease. Am J Med. 1998; 104(6A): 18S-27S.

Stone NJ. Lipid management: current diet and drug treatment options. Am J Med. 1996; 101(4A): 4A40S-48S; discussion 48S-49S.

Miller CA. Update on statins and other lipid-lowering drugs. Geriatr Nurs. 2001; 22(5): 276-277.

Heidarian E, Jafari-Dehkordi E, Seidkhani-Nahal A. Effect of garlic on liver phosphatidate phosphohydrolase and plasma lipid levels in hyperlipidemic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011; 16: 1110-1114.

Wider B, Pittler MH, Thompson-Coon J, Ernst E. Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 7(4): CD003335.

van Herpen NA, Schrauwen-Hinderling VB. Lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissue and lipotoxicity. Physiol Behav. 2008; 94(2): 231-241.

Elabbadi N, Day CP, Gamouh A, Zyad A, Yeaman SJ. Relationship between the inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase-1 by oleate and oleoyl-CoA ester and its apparent translocation. Biochimie. 2005; 87(5): 437-443.

Jemai H, Fki I, Bouaziz M, Bouallagui Z, El Feki A, Isoda H, Sayadi S. Lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of hydroxytyrosol and its triacetylated derivative recovered from olive tree leaves in cholesterol-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56(8): 2630-2636.

Sudhahar V, Kumar SA, Varalakshmi P, Sundarapandiyan R. Mitigating role of lupeol and lupeol linoleate on hepatic lipemic-oxidative injury and lipoprotein peroxidation in experimental hypercholesterolemia. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007; 295(1-2): 189-198.

Ondrejovičová I, Muchová J, Mišľanová C, Nagyová Z, Ďuračková Z. Hypercholesterolemia, oxidative stress and gender dependence in children. Prague Med Rep. 2010; 111(4): 300-312.

Lykkesfeldt J. Malondialdehyde as biomarker of oxidative damage to lipids caused by smoking. Clin Chim Acta. 2007; 380(1-2): 50-58.

Juzyszyn Z, Czerny B, Myśliwiec Z, Pawlik A, Droździk M. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria. Phytother Res. 2010; 24 Suppl 2(24): S123-128.

Brown JE, Rice-Evans CA. Luteolin-rich artichoke extract protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro. Free Radic Res. 1998; 29(3): 247-255.

Pérez-Garcia F, Adzet T, Canigueral S. Activity of artichoke leaf extract on reactive oxygen species in human leukocytes. Free Radic Res. 2000; 33(5): 661-665.

Jiménez-Escrig A, Dragsted LO, Daneshvar B, Pulido R, Saura-Calixto F. In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51(18): 5540-5545.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.