Radical Scavenging Activity and Cytotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta L.

Riham Omar Bakr, Mohamed Abd El-Aziz El-Raey, Christin Nader Farouk, Hadil Emad Ahmed, Ola Mohamed El-Said

Abstract


Euphorbia hirta L. (asthma weed, pill bearing spurge), is one of the most important species of Euphorbiaceae indigenous to Egypt and widely used in folk medicine. It was the subject for many phytochemical and biological studies but correlation between phytoconstituents and biological activities were not well studied. The aim of the present study was to correlate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities against two of the most important health problems in Egypt with the main constituents in E. hirta (phenolic and flavonoid). The different fractions obtained from successive extraction of E. hirta were screened for their radical scavenging ability using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) test in addition to cytotoxicity using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay against liver (Huh-7) and lung (A-549) cell carcinoma. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated using colorimetric assays (Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride assays respectively). Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction appeared as potent radical scavenger (IC50 5.4±0.65 µg/ml and IC90 11.9±0.84 µg/ml) and had the highest potency against Huh-7 (IC50 36.7±1.02 µg/ml) and A-549 (IC50 114.4 ±0.78 µg/ml) cancer cell lines. These results are attributed to the highest flavonoid concentration (23±1.06 mg/g quercetin equivalent) in EtOAc fraction in addition to high content of phenolics (88.9 ±0.57 mg/g gallic acid equivalent). Further studies are necessary to isolate and identify the ethyl acetate’s bioactive compounds and evaluation of their biological activities.


Keywords


Cytotoxicity, DPPH, Euphorbia hirta, phenolic content, SRB assay

Full Text:

PDF

References


- Hagagg MY. Herbal Medicine in Egypt. In: Heywood VH, Skoula M editors. Identification of wild food and non-food plants of the Mediterranean region. Chania : CIHEAM-IAMC. 1997; p. 45- 55. Regional Workshop of the MEDUSA Network "Identification and use of Wild Plants of the Mediterranean Region", 1996/06/28-29, Chania (Greece).

- Radcliffe-Smith A. Genera Euphorbiacearum. 2001. Kew, UK. Royal Botanic Garden.

- Hegazi AM, Afifi MY, El Shorbagy MA, Elwan AA, El- Demerdashe, S. Egyptian National Action Program to Combat Desertification. Arab Republic of Egypt. Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation Desert Research Center (DRC). 2005

- Bown D. Morphological characters of E. hirta. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. 2005; 42 (2): 6-14.

- Tona L, Kambu K, Ngimbi N, Mesia K, Penge O, Lusakibanza M, Cimanga K, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ. Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrheal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine. 2000; 7(1): 31-38.

- Singh SK, Yadav RP, Tiwari S, Singh A. Toxic effect of stem bark and leaf of Euphorbia hirta plant against freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. Chemosphere. 2005; 59 (2): 263-70.

- Liu Y, Murakami N, Ji H, Abreu P,Zhang S. Antimalarial flavonol glycosides from Euphorbia hirta. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2007; 45 (4): 278-281.

- Wu Y, Qu W, Geng D, Liang J-Y, Luo YL. Phenols and flavonoids from the aerial part of Euphorbia hirta. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines. 2012; 10 (1): 40-42.

- Chen L. Polyphenols from leaves of Euphorbia hirta L. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1991; 16 (1): 38-9.

- Ogunlesi M, Okiei W, Ofor E, Osibote AE. Analysis of the essential oil from the dried leaves of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), a potential medication for asthma. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009; 8 (24): 7042-7050.

- Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Cabalion P, Rolland A, Dorfman P, Misslin R, Pelt J-M. Behavioral effects of Euphorbia hirta L.: sedative and anxiolytic properties. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1990; 29: 189-98.

- Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Dorfman P, Mortier F, Pelt JM. Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-Inflammatory properties of Euphorbia hirta. Planta Medica. 1991; 57 (3): 225-31.

- Daud MNH. Phytochemical analysis and biological activity of Euphorbia hirta and Phyllanthus watsonii. Master thesis, Faculty of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. (2006)

- Galvez J, Zarzuelo A, Crespo ME, Lorente MD, Ocente MA, Jiménez J. Antidiarrhoeic activity of Euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active flavonoid constituent. Planta Medica. 1993; 59 (4): 333-336.

- Galvez J, Crespo ME, Jimenez J, Suarez A, Zarzuelo A. Anti-diarrhoeic activity of quercetrin in mice and rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology. 1993; 45: 157-159.

- Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Handa KL, Kapur LD.Chopra's Indigenous drugs of India. 2nd edition. Academic Publishers, Calcutta, India; 1994.

- Suresh K, Deepa P, Harisaranraj R, Achudhan V. Antimicrobial and phytochemical investigation of the Leaves of Carica papaya L., Cynodon dactylon (L.), Pers., Euphorbia hirta L., Melia azedarach L. and Psidium guajava L. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2008; 12: 1184-1191.

- Vijaya K, Ananthan S, Nalini R. Antibacterial effect of the aflavin, polyphenon 60 (Camellia sinensis) and Euphorbia hirta on shigella spp. a cell culture study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995; 49 (2):115-118.

- Mohamed S, Saka S, EL-Sharkawy SH, Ali AM, Muid S. Antimycotic screening of 58 Malaysian plants against plant pathogens. Pesticide Sciences. 1996; 47 (3): 259–264.

- Kumar GS, Jayaveera KN, Kumar CK, Sanjay UP, Swamy BM, Kumar DV. Antimicrobial effects of Indian medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. Tropical journal of pharmaceutical research. 2007; 6 (2): 717-723.

- Olabiyi TI, Oyedunmade EEA, Ibikunle GJ, Ojo OA, Adesina GO, Adelasoye KA, Ogunniran TA. Chemical composition and bio-nematicidal potential of some weed extracts on Meloidogyne incognita under laboratory conditions. Plant Sciences Research. 2008; 1 (2): 30-35.

- Sharma NK, Dey S, Prasad R. In vitro antioxidant potential evaluation of Euphorbia hirta L. Pharmacology Online. 2007; 1: 91–98.

- Kumar S, Malhotra R, Kumar D. Antidiabetic and free radicals scavenging potential of Euphorbia hirta flower extract. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2010; 72 (4): 533–537.

- Kumar S, Malhotra R, Kumar D. Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities. Pharmacognosy Review. 2010; 4 (7):58-61.

- Sidambaram R, Dinesh MG, Jayalakshmi ET. An in vitro study of cytotoxic activity of Euphorbia hirta on HEP-2 cells of human epithelioma of larynx. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 3 (3): 101-103.

- Shimada K, Fujikawa K, Yahara K, Nakamura T. Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autooxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1992; 40 (6): 945–948.

- Gülçin I, Oktay M, Kireççi E, Küfrevıoǧlu ÖI. Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts. Food Chemistry 2003; 83 (3): 371-382.

- Oktay M, Gülçin I, Küfrevioğlu I. Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. Food Science and Technology. 2003; 36 (2): 263–271.

- Skehan P, Storeng R, Scudiero D, Monks A, McMahon J, Vistica D, Warren JT, Bokesch H, Kenney S, and Boyd MR. New colorimetric cytotoxicity assay for anticancer-drug screening. Journal of National Cancer Institution. 1990; 82: 1107-1112.

- Al-Abd AM, Lee JH, Kim SY, Kun N, Kuh HJ. Novel application of multicellular layers culture for in situ evaluation of cytotoxicity and penetration of paclitaxel 2008; Cancer Sciences. 99 (2): 423-431.

- Harborne JB. Phytochemistry1993. Academic Press, London, pp. 89-131.

- Sofowora A. Screening plants for Bioactive Agents In: Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 1993; Spectrum Books Ltd., Sunshine House, Ibadan. Nigeria, 2nd Edn. Pp 134-156.

- Sellappan S, Akoh CC, Krewer G. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Georgia-grown blueberries and blackberries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50 (8), 2432-38.

- Bao J, Cai Y, Sun M, Wang G, Corke H. Anthocyanins, flavonols, and free radical scavenging activity of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) extracts and their color properties and stability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005; 53 (6): 2327-2332.

- Kosalec I, Bakmaz M, Pepeljnjak S, Vladimir-Knezevic, S. Quantitative analysis of the flavonoids in raw propolis from northern Croatia. Acta Pharmaceutica. 2004; 54, 65–72.

- Solis PN, Wright CW, Anderson MM, Gupta MP, Philipson JD. A microwell cytotoxicity assay using Artemia salina (Brine shrimps). Planta Medica. 1993; 59 (3): 250 - 252.

- Owen RW, Haubner R, Mier W, Giacosa A, Hull WE, Spiegelhalder B et al. Isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant potential of the major phenolic and flavonoid compounds in brined olive drupes. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2003; 41(5): 703-717.

- Fresco P, Borges F, Diniz C, Marques MP. New insights on the anticancer properties of dietary polyphenols. Medicinal Research Reviews. 2006; 26 (6): 747-766.

- Kandalkar A, Manjunath KP, Patel A. (2011). Isolation and Antioxidant Potential of Euphorbia hirta Linn: Present Study related with the Antioxidant Activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. leaves and also the isolation of Bioactive compound Myricitrin. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. ISBN-13: 978-3-8443-1066-5.

- Voigt W. Sulforhodamine B assay and chemosensitivity. Methods in Molecular Medicine. 2005; 110: 39-48.

- Ul-Haqa I, Ullaha N, Bibi G, Kanwal S, Ahmad MS and Mirza B. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis of Euphorbia wallichii root extract and its fractions. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2012; 11 (1): 241-249.

- Patil SB and Magdum CS. Determination of LC50 values of extracts of Euphorbia hirta Linn and Euphorbia neriifolia Linn using brine shrimp lethality assay. Asian Journal Research of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 1 (2): 42-43.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c)

                AR Journals

18K, Street 1st, Gaytri Vihar, Pinto Park, Gwalior, M.P. India

              Copyright@arjournals.org (Design) 2009-2018

 

Follow @arjournals on Twitter